What is Urbanization?
Urbanization refers to the migration of people from rural to urban areas, resulting in an increasing proportion of the population that resides in urban locations instead of rural ones. The term is derived from the Latin word “Urbs,” which was used by the Romans to describe a city.
Urban Sociology: The Study of Urban Living
Urban sociology is the study of human life and social relationships in urban environments and situations. Thompson Warren defines it as the movement of people from communities focused on agriculture to larger communities with a focus on government, trade, manufacturing, or similar interests.
Urbanization as a Two-Way Process
Urbanization is not a one-way process, as it involves not only the physical migration from villages to cities, but also a change in the attitudes, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns of the migrants.
Global Trend of Rapid Urbanization
Urbanization is happening at a rapid pace all over the world, with people being attracted to urban areas for the various facilities they offer such as education, healthcare, employment opportunities, civic amenities, and social welfare. In India, the census defines criteria for urbanization, which include:
- A population of over 5000
- A density of over 400 persons per sq. km
- 75% of the male population engaged in non-agricultural occupations
- Cities are urban areas with a population of more than one lakh
- Metropolises are cities with a population of over one million
Defining Urban Areas
Urban areas are defined as concentrations of people who work in non-agricultural activities. The key characteristic of an urban area is that it is non-agricultural. The definition of urban can vary depending on different criteria such as population size, space, density, and economic organization. However, in general, urban areas are defined by a baseline size, such as a population of 20,000 people. This definition can vary between regions and cities.